With physical development as a prime area in the Early Years Foundation Stage and physical activity guidelines from the Department of Health including recommendations for the under fives, it's an important area in your early years setting. Read on for our tips to support the children you work with.
- Physical development and the EYFS
- Best practice and activity ideas
- Jargon buster
- Supporting children with additional needs
- Working with dads, mums and carers
Physical development and the EYFS
Physical development is one of the three prime areas within the Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS). Each prime area is divided into Early Learning Goals, for physical development these are:
- Moving and handling - skills enabling children to show good control and coordination in large and small movements. Children are able to handle equipment and tools effectively, including pencils for writing.
- Health and self care - children knowing the importance of good health which includes physical exercise and a healthy diet. Children are able to manage their own basic hygiene and personal needs successfully, including dressing and going to the toilet independently.
Best practice and activity ideas
The Department of Health say to aim for at least three hours of physical activity across the day for children in the early years. But every movement counts and you don't need to plan extra activities, just make the most of everyday opportunities. For example when you're changing toddlers' nappies, encourage them to lie down and get up themselves as this helps to strengthen their core muscles and to support and develop their balance and coordination.
Encouraging children to walk up and down stairs by themselves is another good opportunity (it's challenging so they may need your support). And help children learn to use alternate feet by making sure there are opportunities in your setting for them to climb. Try starting off with having large blocks for the children to crawl, walk and climb up and over and when they're more confident, provide stilts so that they can get used to moving their feet at different times.
Let babies and children feed themselves finger foods as this helps to promote fine motor skills like grasping and hand-eye coordination (just be aware of choking hazards).
You'll find more ideas on our physical development for pre-schoolers Pinterest board and on the following web pages:
If you're new to working in early years you may not be familiar with all of these terms so here's a handy guide:
- Cruising - when a child walks or moves along using furniture for support.
- Fine motor skills - when a child uses precise movements using specific body parts, such as the thumb and finger to pick objects up.
- Gross motor skills - when a child uses their whole body in a movement, such as jumping or running.
- Hand-eye coordination - when a child's hands and eyes are working together, for example catching a ball.
- Mark making - this could be anything, from a baby or child making marks with their fingers in sand, to dipping their hands or fingers in paint, to paint a picture.
- Pincer movement - when a child uses an index finger and thumb, to pick up and move objects.
- Tummy time - placing a baby on their tummy with engaging toys, lights, mirrors, or you to look at. This can help the baby build gross motor skills as they improve neck, back and arm strength from this position. Short, frequent sessions of tummy time will eventually help support a baby to crawl. During Tummy Time a baby can learn to kick their legs and flap their arms. They can reach and do push ups when they are strong enough. Eventually, they'll learn to roll over to their back from their tummy.
Supporting children with additional needs
On our Supporting children with additional needs page, you'll find guidance about intimate care and toileting. And there's an Early Years Resources Pack under Children's occupational therapy. It'll help you to understand the role of an occupational therapist in early years settings and how to make referrals. It also includes charts of how to identify difficulties and suggests activities to encourage children's development.
If you're concerned about a child's physical development speak to your area advisory team:
- North east: SectorNE@surreycc.gov.uk
- North west: SectorNW@surreycc.gov.uk
- South east: SectorSE@surreycc.gov.uk
- South west: SectorSW@surreycc.gov.uk
Working with dads, mums and carers
Why not share these Move with me leaflets with parents at your setting? They're packed full of easy little tips parents can use at home to support their child's physical development from birth to five years old. Plus they're free!
There's a Move with me photo album with tips on Family Information Service's Facebook page too.
We offer all sorts of workshops for childcare professionals around physical development, including Forest School training. Check your training programme to see what's available (it changes term to term).
Files available to download
- Physical activity for early years infographic (70.3 KB)
Physical activity in the early years (birth to 5 years) infographic from the Department of Health