Vehicular, electric vehicle and cycle parking guidance for new developments

Contents

Introduction

It is widely recognised that the availability of car parking has a major influence on the means of transport people choose for their journeys. It is therefore essential to try and get the balance right, by providing an appropriate level and type of parking, protecting highway safety and promoting transport sustainability.

This guidance recognises that Surrey produces varying demand for travel and car parking, and its resultant car parking requirements. It would be inappropriate to apply a single standard across the entire county, so the intention is to apply a pragmatic and flexible approach.

Surrey County Council (SCC), as Highway Authority is a Statutory Consultee in respect of transport planning considerations and responds to planning application consultations from all of the Planning Authorities where development has a highway and transport impact.

At a local level, concerns relating to deficiencies in car parking provision leads to a desire amongst local communities for more car parking spaces. On these occasions, the County Council might express concern about catering for car parking demand particularly in an area that might already be suffering from congestion.

Surrey exhibits a wide range of social and economic circumstances that necessitate a flexible approach to identifying appropriate levels of car parking provision. Such an approach should provide a level of accessibility by private car that is consistent with the overall balance of the transport system at the local level.

The increased popularity of cycling for leisure and commuting means that the inclusion of high quality cycle parking is important in all new development. Similarly, the emergence of electric vehicles and a projected growth in their use and ownership dictates that charging points must also become integral to all new development.

Policy and consultation

Policy

This guidance was originally produced in 2012 in accordance with the national planning policy in existence and emerging at that time. Consideration was also given to the draft National Planning Policy Framework (NPPF) dated July 2011. The NPPF is based around the principle of local and neighbourhood plans, which empower local communities to shape their own surroundings. It provides a framework within which local people and their respective councils can produce their own distinctive approaches, reflecting the needs and priorities of their areas.

It is considered that this parking guidance very much accords with the NPPF 2021 in its recommendation for flexibility and application according to local circumstances.


Consultation

This guidance was originally the subject of consultation between October 2010 and January 2011. Comments received were incorporated where appropriate. This guidance is intended to be applied locally and via Local Development Frameworks. The car and cycle parking element of the Guidance remains as per the previous 2012 version. To keep pace with emerging technology, the guidance was updated to include further revised electric vehicle charging standards. The new electric vehicle requirements were presented to the 'Surrey Air Alliance', a group made up of Environmental Health Officers from Surrey districts and boroughs.

The previous 2012 Guidance sought the use of trickle charger points; these are no longer recommended and instead it is recommended that higher capacity charge points be used to align with increasing technology and larger capacity EV batteries. The guidance will be further updated as and when necessary to keep pace with evolving EV technologies. Any significant changes to future EV infrastructure requirements will become the subject of further consultation.

Application of this guidance

This guidance is intended to be flexible and used as considered appropriate by the 12 LPAs across Surrey. This is to ensure that parking requirements can be completely tailored by the LPA to suit the unique circumstances of any given development proposal in accordance with its location.


How to use this guidance

SCC's vehicular and cycle parking guidance is set out overleaf. This guidance is commended to the 12 LPAs for use within their own local development framework documents and supersedes the SCC Parking Strategy dated January 2012. Please note:

  • All parking levels relate to gross floor area and are recommended as a maximum unless otherwise stated.
  • Provision for uses marked "individual assessment" will require their own justification and the inclusion of parking management plans, travel plans and cycle strategies where appropriate.
  • Levels of parking per member of staff (full time equivalent) should be calculated using the average of those employed on site at any one time.
  • Guidance is also provided regarding disabled parking, school parking, car clubs and electric vehicle charging points.

Production of individual assessments

Where "individual assessment" is required, it should be demonstrated that demand for parking is either met on site or mitigated and managed as appropriate.

Potential grounds for parking related objections by Surrey County Council

When responding to consultations on residential development, it is expected that SCC will only raise objections regarding parking if there is a shortfall that would lead to danger on the adjoining highway.

It is unlikely that objections would be raised on amenity grounds of a shortfall in parking, or if parking levels in excess of residential guidance were being provided. Excessive parking provision in residential development is unlikely to generate travel by car, unless it is also used by other more restrained land-uses, where restraint might have been applied in that locality. There is no policy to restrict car ownership so there is little to be gained in heavily restraining residential parking.

In the case of all other land uses, objections might be raised to parking levels being proposed in excess of the guidance on policy grounds. Parking proposed at levels below the maximum standard will not be objected to, other than in exceptional circumstances where there are significant implications for road safety.

Recommended guidance for maximum vehicular parking levels

Contents

Class A1 Retail to C2 Residential institutions

Use Class

Maximum per square metre

A1 Retail: food or non-food retail eg: small parades of shops serving the local community (up to 500 square metres)

1 car space per 30 square metres

A1 Retail: food retail (500 square metres to 1000 square metres)

1 space per 25 square metres

A1 Retail: food retail (above 1000 square metres)

1 car space per 14 square metres

A1 Retail: non-food retail (500 square metres or more)

1 space per 25 square metres

A1 Retail: *suggested reductions as stated or greater, to be applied based on location.

*Note: Retail parking to be provided as shared use where appropriate.

Town Centre 75%

Edge of Centre 50%

Suburban 25%

Suburban/Edge / Village/Rural 0%

A3 Food and drink: Restaurants, snack bars and café's. For sale and consumption on the premises (if located beyond town centre locations).

1 car space per 6 square metres

No parking in town centres

A4 Drinking establishments: Public houses, wine bars or other drinking establishments but not nightclubs (if located beyond Town Centre locations).

Individual assessment / justification

No parking in town centres

A5 Hot Food Takeaways: For sale and consumption of hot food off the premises (if located beyond Town Centre locations).

1 car space per 6 square metres

No parking in town centres

B1 Business: Offices, research and development, light industry appropriate in a residential area – threshold of 2500 square metres

A maximum range of 1 car space per 30 square metres to 1 car space per 100 square metres depending on location

B2 General Industrial: General industrial use

1 car space per 30 square metres

B8 Storage and distribution (including open air storage): Warehouse storage

1 car space per 100 square metres

1 lorry space per 200 square metres

B8 Storage and distribution (including open air storage): Warehouse distribution

1 car space per 70 square metres

1 lorry space per 200 square metres

B8 Storage and distribution (including open air storage): Cash and carry

1 car space per 70 square metres

1 lorry space per 200 square metres

C1 Hotels: Hotels, boarding and guest houses where no significant care is provided

1.5 car spaces per bedroom plus 1 coach space per 100 bedrooms OR individual assessment/justification

C2 Residential institutions: Care home and Nursing home

1 car space per 2 residents OR individual assessment / justification

C2 Residential institutions: Hospitals

1 car space per 4 staff plus 1 car space per 3 daily visitors OR individual assessment/justification

C2 Residential institutions: Residential colleges

Individual assessment / justification

C2 Residential institutions: Training centres

1 car space per 2 staff or individual assessment /justification

C3 Dwelling houses (residential)

(family houses, up to 6 residents living as a single household, including households where care is provided)

Locational Characteristics

Town
Centre

Edge of
Centre

Suburban

Suburban edge,
Village and Rural

1 and 2 bed flats

1 space per unit

1 space per unit

1 space per unit

1 space per unit

1 and 2 bed houses

1 space per unit

1 space per unit

1+ space per unit

(where space permits, it may be appropriate to consider increased provision)

1.5+ spaces per unit

(where space permits, it may be appropriate to consider increased provision)

3 bed houses

1 space per unit

1+ space per unit

(where space permits, it may be appropriate to consider increased provision)

2+ spaces per unit

(where space permits, it may be appropriate to consider increased provision)

2+ spaces per unit

(where space permits, it may be appropriate to consider increased provision)

4+ bed houses

1 space per unit

2+ spaces per unit

(where space permits, it may be appropriate to consider increased provision)

2+ spaces per unit

(where space permits, it may be appropriate to consider increased provision)

2+ spaces per unit

(where space permits, it may be appropriate to consider increased provision)

Notes on residential dwelling houses

  1. Reduced or even nil provision may be appropriate in support of demand management and the most efficient use of land.
  2. Allocated or unallocated parking may be acceptable where appropriate.
  3. Unallocated parking should be available only to the proposed development.
  4. Visitor parking is encouraged where appropriate (such as for flats) though it is not always necessary.
  5. Garages, open carports and / or car barns are acceptable subject to good design. It is acknowledged that in certain locations garages may be used for purposes other than parking. The appropriate size and provision of garages is considered to be a matter for the local authority.

C3 Dwelling houses (elderly sheltered accommodation)

Use Class

Maximum per square metre

C3 Dwelling houses: Elderly (sheltered)

1 car space per 1 or 2 bed self-contained unit OR 0.5 per communal unit or individual Assessment

D1 Non-residential institutions

Use Class

Maximum per square metre

Day Nurseries/Crèche

0.75 car spaces per member of staff plus 0.2 spaces per child

Doctor's practices

1 car space per consulting room

remaining spaces on individual assessment

Dentist's practices

1 car space per consulting room

remaining spaces on individual assessment

Veterinary practices

1 car space per consulting room

remaining spaces on individual assessment

Libraries, museums and art galleries

1 car space per 30 square metres or individual assessment/justification

Public halls licensed for entertainment, unlicensed youth and community centres and Scout huts etc

1 car space per 3 persons or per 3 seats or per 20 square metres or individual assessment/justification

Places of worship

1 car space per 10 seats or individual assessment/justification

Schools, colleges and children's centres

Individual assessment or justification – see additional note on school parking

D2 Assembly and leisure

Use Class

Maximum per square metre

Theatres, cinemas, bingo clubs, dance halls and clubs

1 car space per 5 licensed persons or individual assessment/justification

Conference Centres

1 car space per 5 seats or individual assessment/justification

Exhibition Halls

1 car space per 6 square metres or individual assessment/justification

Stadia

1 car space per 15 seats or individual assessment/justification

Health clubs/leisure centres

individual assessment or justification

Tennis and Badminton Clubs

4 car spaces per court or individual assessment/justification

Squash Clubs

2 car spaces per court or individual assessment/justification

Marinas and water sports

3 car spaces per hectare of water or individual assessment/justification

Field Sports Clubs

1 car space per 2 playing participants or individual assessment/justification

Golf Clubs and driving ranges

1 car space per 0.3 holes or per driving bay or individual assessment/justification

Equestrian centres

1 car space per stable or individual assessment/justification

Other uses

Use Class

Maximum per square metre

Pick your own fruit farms

9 car spaces per hectare of farmland or individual assessment / justification

Vehicle repair, garage and spares stores

1 car space per 20 square metres or individual assessment / justification

Car sales establishments

1 car space per 50 square metres car display area or individual assessment/justification

Exhaust and tyre centres

1 car space per 0.3-0.5 bays or individual assessment or justification

Sui Generis and all other uses not mentioned above

individual assessment or justification

Note on disabled parking

Parking for disabled drivers should be designed and provided in accordance with the appropriate government guidance. As a starting point, for non-residential development, an additional 5% of total parking spaces should be allocated for disabled users or a minimum of 1 space per 750 square metres (whichever is the greater) to meet demand. Such spaces should have dimensions of 3.6 metres by 5 metres and be located no further than 50 metres from an accessible entrance, (ideally the main entrance), clearly signed and under cover. This is in accordance with Department for Transport Traffic Advice Leaflet 5/95.


Notes on school parking

New Schools, or those where expansion is proposed, are expected to develop, update and monitor School Travel Plans.

Cars

Operational requirements (broadly defined as staff and visitors) should be provided for only, together with overflow parking areas for community uses. Parent parking, pupil parking and drop off/pick up areas should not be provided as this is a disincentive to travelling by sustainable modes. Existing sites may be an exception if further on-street parking reduces highway safety or emergency access.

Measures to discourage parking should be considered first and could include car sharing, staggered school days, parking restrictions, parking permits issued on the basis of need and other measures as appropriate.

A parking management plan should be prepared and submitted as an integral part of any planning application where parking is an acknowledged problem.

Coach/Bus

On all new school sites where it is likely that pupils will travel to and from school in coaches, sufficient space should be reserved to allow coaches to enter the site, drop off and pick up pupils. Where appropriate, bus stops, bays, raised kerbs, seating and shelters shall be provided on the highway by the applicant.

Cycles and non-motorised Scooters

Provision of cycle and non-motorised scooter* parking will be a condition of any new or expanded school. Whenever possible, improvements to cycle routes and other appropriate safety measures should be provided by the applicant. (*for Pre-school and Primary School education).

Recommended guidance for Car Club requirements

Parking provision for use by Car Clubs will be supported and encouraged where appropriate in line with SCC's Car Club guidance.

A car club provides cars for short term hire on a pay per trip basis. This allows individuals and businesses affordable access to a vehicle without the need for ownership. Take up of car clubs is growing rapidly, as levels of car ownership decline. Car clubs offer clear benefits for individuals, with cost savings and access to a range of low carbon, well-maintained, flexible use vehicles.

Car clubs also support policies to cut congestion, reduce emissions, improve air quality, reduce parking pressure and increase take-up of sustainable travel modes. Used in the right locations, car clubs can be a very effective measure to promote sustainable development.

Guidance has been produced to guide developers, planners and SCC officers in the process of deciding on, planning and implementing car club provision as part of a new development through the planning process.

A car club is most relevant to planning applications for large scale developments, those requiring a Transport Assessment or Transport Statement and a Travel Plan. In order to support the County's ambitions in becoming net zero carbon by 2050 at the latest, all new car club vehicles provided by development shall be electric. The simplified list of thresholds below gives an indication of when these will be required, although this is always to be considered on a case by case basis:

  • Retail developments over about 800 square metres gross floor area.
  • Employment developments over about 1500 square metres gross floor area.
  • Residential developments including 50 or more new homes.
  • Non-residential institutions and assembly or leisure developments over about 1500 square metres gross floor area.
  • Developments creating about 100 or more vehicle parking spaces.

For more information please see below:

Recommended guidance for electric vehicle charging requirements

The shared ambition of Surrey's 12 local authorities is that our residents live in clean, safe and green communities, where people and organisations embrace their environmental responsibilities. In support of this ambition – and the UK's commitment to achieving net zero carbon emissions by 2050 – Surrey's Climate Change Strategy sets out our collective commitment to do our part to tackle climate change (see notes below: note 1).

In 2020 pure-electric sales were up by 185.9% versus 2019, while plug-in hybrid sales were up 91.2%. August 2021 saw a 32.2% increase in pure-electric car sales in the UK compared to the same month in 2020. A total of 68,033 new cars were registered in the UK in August 2021, (10.9% of the total) were pure-electric cars, (7.4%) were plug-in hybrids, and (nearly 12%) were full hybrids. Diesel and mild-hybrid diesels accounted for the remainder of sales, at 7.5% and 4.9% of the total respectively (see notes below: note 2).

More than 6.5 million households plan to buy an electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid, research by the energy watchdog Ofgem has found. This equates to 24%, or nearly one in four, of all energy households. The climate change committee, an independent public body that advises the UK government and devolved governments, predicts that about 18 million battery and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles will be on the road by 2030 when a ban on the sale of new internal combustion vehicles is introduced. (see notes below: note 3).

The County Council will seek the provision of electric vehicle (EV) charging points within all new developments as set out within this Guidance, supported by the NPPF 2021 at paragraph 107(e). These standards take into account the view that the majority of charging will take place at home and be done overnight with supplementary charging taking place in workplaces, town centres and at service stations.

EV charging is a developing technology and the County Council will seek to ensure that connection points are installed in line with emerging technical requirements and open standards. Connections conforming to national and/or industry standards will therefore be used wherever possible. With continuing development in technology, it is expected that wired charging may eventually be replaced by passive wireless charging which allows vehicles to park or travel over a pad buried beneath the surface. The County Council will expect new installations to be passive when this method of charging becomes cost effective for general use.

Historically there have been three speeds available for electric vehicle charging – trickle (3 kilowatt), fast (7 kilowatt) and rapid (40 kilowatt plus). Trickle charging is not recommended for use by the County Council. Battery prices have fallen significantly in recent years and the recent introduction of larger batteries in more affordable family cars has reduced the practicality of trickle charging, since charging times can easily exceed 12 hours. The minimum accepted provision is 7 kilowatt 'fast chargers' unless otherwise agreed.

The standards acknowledge that innovation and technology will continue to develop and battery sizes will get increasingly larger to meet the demand for longer range electric vehicles.

The price of charging units has also fallen, increasing the financial viability of fast 7 kilowatt chargers, in residential and commercial developments. A number of new styles of charging unit, such as wall mounted, have increased the ease with which they can be integrated into new housing developments. Commercial land uses, particularly those with retail units, present the possibility of charging users fees for the use of fast or rapid units, creating an income stream to offset installation or running costs.

Notes:

  1. Surrey's Climate Change Strategy 2020: Surrey's climate change strategy.
  2. Driving Electric.com - Electric car sales UK: August 2021 sees electric overtake diesel for market share 6 Sept 2021.
  3. The Guardian – '6.5 million households in UK plan to buy an EV by 2030' 21 May 2021.

These standards will be reviewed in line with the development of technology. It is the responsibility of the developer to ensure that the electricity supply is sufficient to meet future demands and that any power balancing technology is in place if required.

Residential development

Residential Development

EV Charging Requirement

Charge Point Specification

Power Requirement

Houses

1 fast charge socket per house.

7 kilowatt Mode 3 with Type 2 Connector

230 volts AC 32 Amp Single Phase dedicated supply

Flats and apartments

1 fast charge socket per flat (allocated and unallocated spaces).

7 kilowatt Mode 3 with Type 2 Connector

230 volts AC 32 Amp Single Phase dedicated supply

C2 Care and Nursing Home

C3 Elderly (Sheltered)

20% of available spaces to be fitted with a fast charge socket

A further 20% of available spaces to be provided with power supply to provide additional fast charge socket

7 kilowatt Mode 3 with Type 2 Connector

230 volts AC 32 Amp Single Phase dedicated supply

Commercial development

(Offices, Employment Retail, Leisure Uses)

  • B1 Offices, light industry great than 500 metres
  • B2 General, industrial greater than 500 metres
  • B8 Storage and Distribution greater than 1000 metres
  • D1 Doctors and Dentists practices
  • D1 Schools and Colleges
  • A1 Retail greater than 500 metres
  • C1 Hotels
  • D2 Sports Clubs, Health Clubs, Leisure Centres, Theatres, Cinemas, Conference Centres, greater than 500 square metres

Requirements and specifications for above as follows:

EV charging requirementCharge point specificationPower requirement
20% of available spaces to be fitted with a fast charge socket, plus7 Kilowatt Mode 3 with Type 2 Connector230 volts AC 32 Amp Single Phase dedicated supply
A further 20% of available spaces to be provided with power supply to provide additional fast charge socketFeeder pillar or equivalent permitting future connection230 volts AC 32 Amp Single Phase dedicated supply

All other types of uses

Type

EV Charging Requirement

Charge Point Specification

Power Requirement

(Including all other uses not mentioned above).

Individual assessment / justification

Individual assessment / justification

To be determined by charge point specification

High demand, Short Stay Land Uses

Development with high demand and short stay characteristics in strategic locations, for example:

  • Motorway/Strategic Service Stations,
  • Large Petrol Filling stations).
  • Large or major development and regeneration projects.

EV Charging Requirement

Charge Point Specification

Power Requirement

20% of available spaces to be fitted with a fast charge socket

7 kilowatt Mode 3 with Type 2 Connector

230 volts AC 32 Amp Single Phase dedicated supply

A further 10% of available spaces to be provided with power supply to provide additional fast charge socket

Feeder pillar or equivalent permitting future connection.

230 volts AC 32 Amp Single Phase dedicated supply

1 or more rapid charge sockets

50 kilowatt Mode 4 (DC) Multi-standard charge point.

400 volts AC 100Amp Triple Phase dedicated supply

Note: Please refer to BEAMA guide to Electric Vehicle infrastructure for guidance and further information on charging modes and connector types.

Recommended guidance for minimum cycle parking requirements

Cycle parking should be designed and provided in accordance with the appropriate government guidance. Current guidance suggests that such parking should be undercover, lit, secure, adequately signed and as close to the destination as possible (within 20m).

In order to support the growth and use of electric bikes and where appropriate, consideration should be given to the provision and availability of electrical sockets adjacent to any secure cycle parking.

Class A1 Retail to C2 Residential institutions

Use Class

Minimum standard

A1 Retail: Food retail

1 space per 350 square metres (out of centre)

1 space per 125 square metres (town/local centre)

A1 Retail: Non-food retail

1 space per 1500 square metres (out of centre) with minimum 4 spaces

1 space per 300 square metres (town/local centre)

A1 Retail: Garden Centre (can also be classed under sui generis)

1 space per 300 square metres (minimum 2 spaces)

A1 Retail: All other retail uses

Individual assessment

A3 Food and drink: Restaurants, snack bars and café's. For sale and consumption on the premises (if located beyond Town Centre locations).

1 space per 20 seats (min 2 spaces), town centre parking not necessarily required

A4 Drinking establishments: Public houses, wine bars or other drinking establishments but not nightclubs (if located beyond Town Centre locations).

1 space per 100 square metres (minimum 2 spaces), town centre parking not necessarily required

A5 Hot Food Takeaways: For sale and consumption of hot food off the premises (if located beyond Town Centre locations).

1 space per 50 square metres (min 2 spaces), town centre parking not necessarily required

B1 Businesses: Offices

Research and development, light industry

1 space per 125 square metres (min 2 spaces)

1 space per 250 square metres (min 2 spaces)

B2 General Industrial

1 space per 500 square metres (min 2 spaces)

B8 Storage or distribution (including open air storage)

1 space per 500 square metres (min 2 spaces)

C1 Hotels/Guest houses

Individual assessment

C2 Residential Institutions: Care homes/Nursing homes

Individual assessment

C2 Residential Institutions: Hospitals

Individual assessment

C2 Residential Institutions: Residential colleges

1 space per 2 students

1 space per 2 staff

C2 Residential Institutions: Training centres

Individual assessment

C3 Dwelling houses

(family houses, up to 6 residents living as a single household, including households where care is provided)

Use Class

Minimum standard

Flats / houses without garages or gardens:

1 and 2 bedroom unit

1 space

Flats / houses without garages or gardens:

3 or more bedroom unit

2 spaces

D1 Non-residential institutions

Use Class

Minimum standard

Day Nurseries/Crèche

1 space per 5 staff plus

minimum 2 spaces

Doctor's practices

1 space per 2 consulting rooms

minimum 2 spaces

Dentist's practices

1 space per 2 consulting rooms

minimum 2 spaces

Veterinary practices

1 space per 2 consulting rooms

minimum 2 spaces

Libraries, museums and art galleries

Individual assessment

Public halls licensed for entertainment, unlicensed youth and community centres and Scout huts etc

Individual assessment

Places of worship

Individual assessment

Schools and colleges

School Travel Plan required, to incorporate a site specific cycle strategy (see note on school parking under Recommended guidance for maximum vehicular parking levels in index).

Other

Use Class

Minimum standard

D2 Assembly and leisure

Individual assessment

Sui generis and all other uses not mentioned above

Individual assessment